Bali Has Part for HIV-1 Spread in Manado, North Sulawesi

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Illustration by Feri Fenoria

UNAIR NEWS – Manado is the capital of North Sulawesi province with the highest number of HIV sufferers. According to Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, S.Si., M.Si, a member of UNAIR HIV-1 / AIDS and Institute of Tropical Disease (ITD) research team, the highest HIV-1 subtype in Manado is the same as the majority of HIV-1 subtypes in Indonesia which is CRF01_AE at 84.1%.

“There are least a few HIV-1 subtypes in Manado, CRF01_AE, subtype B, subtype CRF07_BC and recombination between CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG, “explained Ria.

The difference between the various subtypes lies in the arrangement of DNA material. In her research, researchers used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

The PCR technique itself is a method for DNA replication enzymatically without using organisms. An analysis using DNA sequencing was then conducted and matched on genetic material data in GenBank.

Furthermore, the research also detected the origin of the CRF01_AE subtype in Manado. By using phylogenetic analysis method, there is an indication that the subtype was from Bali.

“It is estimated that the virus entered Manado in around 1990, ” she continued.

In the future, surveillance studies will continue to be conducted to identify sources of HIV spread, to identify the transmission routes of the CRF01_AE subtype in Indonesia and to develop therapeutic effectiveness in HIV patients.

Beside identifying subtypes and transmission routes, the government is also expected to make policies to implement resistance health checks on HIV sufferers so when there is a resistant patient detected, the patient can get the appropriate therapy.

“Although there is no cure for HIV, but at least a right therapy can make the condition better and extend the life of patients,” stated Ria.

Author: Galuh Mega Kurnia

Editor : Khefti Al Mawalia

Reference :  Ueda, S., Witaningrum, A. M. & Khairunisa, S. Q., 2018. Genetic Diversity and Drug Resistance of HIV-1 Circulating in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES, 00(00), pp. 1-7.

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