Injury is an abnormal damage to the skin cells followed by disruption of normal tissue structure and function as a result of bruising, swelling, tearing, or abrasions. Wounds in the oral cavity occur when a tooth is extracted, gingivectomy or flap surgery (wound excision) was done. Innovations on the use of herbal or traditional medicines are done a lot because they are easier to obtain, economical, and have low side effects.
Recently, a lot of research have been done to plants used as medicines to accelerate wound healing. One of the medicinal plants that can be utilized is fig leaf ( Ficus carica Linn.). The fig tree is widely cultivated in Indonesia, especially in East Java. Fig leaves contain flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, and saponins. These compounds in tin leaves are known to have biological activity as antioxidants, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antibacterial.
The wound healing process consists of several phases, the inflammatory phase, the proliferation phase, and the remodeling phase. This study looked at the number of macrophages, fibroblasts and collagen in the wound healing process on day 3 and day 7, wound healing process is still in the inflammatory and proliferation phase. Macrophages have an important role in wound healing, and have the ability to produce factors stimulating angiogenesis and fibroplasias.
Fibroblast cells are the most common cells found in connective tissue and synthesize several extracellular matrix (collagen) components.
This study used lab mice, divided into control groups that were not given tin leaf extract and treatment groups were given tin leaf extract. The experimental animals were incised and not given tin leaf extracts, observed on day 3 and 7 as a control group. The other group were incised with tin leaf extract, and were observed on day 3 and 7 as a treatment group. Tin leaf extract was done once every day. Before an incision was made, the animal was injected with a combination of ketamine HCl and diazepam. All incision wounds in experimental animals were covered with wound plaster (hypafix) to prevent infection and contamination.
The tissue is removed and put in a hygienic tube of 10% formalin buffer solution, the tissue is put in liquid paraffin for 2 × 24 hours. Paraffin blocks were cut by rotary microtome with a thickness of 4 µm. Haematoxylin eosin (HE) staining is done on the tissue to count the number of fibroblasts and macrophages. Staining using Masson’s Trichome (MT) was performed to observe the thickness of collagen.
The administration of tin leaf extract to incision wounds increases the number of macrophage and fibroblast cells. It indicates an acceleration of macrophage activation and infiltration in the injured tissue and accelerates the inflammatory phase. In addition to macrophage cells, there was also an increase in fibroblast cell proliferation due to release and a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages thereby accelerating wound healing. The extract contains various active compounds such as flavonoids, terpenoids, and tannins which have anti-inflammatory activity. (*)
Author : Intan Nirwana