Role of organizational justice dimensions in enhancing work engagement and employee performance

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Human resources (HR) are prepared to face various new challenges, including financial upheaval, high performance expectations, new technology and the difference in the work values of a new generation in a company, so that later every organization or company becomes more competitive (Bakker et al., 2011). One of the challenges in the company is the performance of individuals who do not meet the requirements set by the company. Individual performance is an important aspect in a company because this will determine the progress or decline of an organization or company. If the employee has a bad performance, then what happens is the decline of the company. This will also apply vice versa, if employees have good performance, then what happens is positive progress for the company.

Performance is an action done by someone both individually or within a team to complete work or tasks (Rai, 2008: 41). Employee with high cognitive abilities are no longer the only guarantee to improve performance, in fact but management also needs HR who are able to invest themselves not only physically but also emotionally in their work (Herbert, 2011). Some things that need to be considered are how an individual is able to be fully involved, feels his work is fun, and has a strong bond with his work. Therefore, organizations or companies should focus on the formal role of positive performance of each individual, and hence this is known as work engagement (Herbert, 2011).

Research on work engagement has proven that employees who are engaged in their work gain more productivity, innovation and good performance (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). Work engagement is a positive state of mind and indicated by strength, commitment and absorption (Park et al., 2016). Beukes & Botha (2013) suggested that work engagement does not only help reduce the level of perceived work stress, but also creates organizational and financial success through increased work motivation and organizational commitment. Engaged employees realize responsibilities at work and motivate other colleagues to achieve success in the organization. These employees are commonly able to control emotions, maximize physical performance and cognitive abilities in the organization (Lianto et al., 2018).

Work engagement itself can be influenced by many factors, one of which is organizational justice (Özer et al., 2017). The better the perception of organizational justice is formed, the more engaged the employee (Ghosh et al., 2014). By implementing organizational justice, there will be trust, an increase in membership behavior and also employee performance, thus this perception can be formed and related to the workplace. Terzi et al., (2017), defines organizational justice as employees’ perceptions of fairness (treated fairly or not) in organizations. This perception of fairness is very important because how employees feel justice will greatly affect the performance and success of the organization. By creating greater trust between management and employees, it will improve the team work, increase the level of employee citizenship behavior and reduce conflicts between management and employees (Yean & Yusof, 2016).

Previous studies conducted by Ozer et al. (2017) proved that the sub dimension of organizational justice consisting of procedural justice, distributive justice and interactional justice have a positive and significant effect on work engagement. Meanwhile Iqbal et al. (2017) found that of the three dimensions of organizational justice, distributive justice and interactional justice had a significant effect on employee performance. Whereas procedural justice does not significantly influence performance in public sector organizations in Pakistan. This perception of procedural justice influences employee attitudes and behaviors regarding decisions made by managers and carries symbolic functions such as strengthening relations between employees and managers. In contrast to both, Gupta et al. (2015) examined other factors, namely work engagement on employee performance and found that work engagement has a positive effect on improving performance.

This study was designed to gain an understanding of organizational justice in PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia, TBI Witel Sidoarjo East Java. The employees of PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia, TBI Witel Sidoarjo East Java shows their positive perception in justice in the workplace. In general, justice in organizations has an influence on employee engagement at work and on their performance. This finding shows that an organization that has a fair work system will in turn have a positive impact on the organization.

Author: Anis Eliyana

Details of this research can be viewed at:

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Media komunikasi dan informasi seputar kampus Universitas Airlangga (Unair).

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