Determinants of knowledge about pregnancy danger signs in Indonesia

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Illustration by Halodoc.com

Maternal mortality in Indonesia is still quite high. The latest data released by the Ministry of Health Data and Information Center reports that the Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) has decreased. Based on the 2010 population census, AKI recorded 346 deaths per 100,000 live births, then dropped to 305 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births based on 2015 SUPAS data. However, this figure still has not reached the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) target of 102 / 100 thousand live births. While based on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) target, Indonesia is demanded to achieve even higher. There are three main targets: reduce the MMR to below 70 deaths per 100,000 live births, reduce the neonatal mortality rate to 12 per 1000 live births, and under-five mortality per 1,000 live births.

Compared to other countries in the region, MMR in Indonesia has a higher number. AKI recorded by Indonesia 9 times higher than Malaysia, five times compared to Vietnam, and almost two times that of Cambodia. According to WHO, a significant disparity in MMR occurs between developed and developing countries. It is predicted that developed countries have AKI in the range of 12 per 100,000 live births, while in developing countries, it is estimated at 239 per 100,000 live births. Indonesia needs to accelerate efforts to reduce MMR. This effort needs to be done massively by involving the community, especially women, to recognize and understand the signs of danger in pregnancy. Thus, it is intended to raise awareness earlier as an anticipatory measure. If there is a perceived risk, it can be immediately consulted with health workers. Based on this background, the study aimed to analyze the determinants of knowledge about the danger signs of pregnancy in Indonesia.

The study was conducted using a sample of Fertile Age Women (WUS), ages 15-49 years. The sample size was 85,832 WUS. The variables analyzed included knowledge of pregnancy danger signs, type of residence, age, education, occupation, marriage, parity, socioeconomic status, health autonomy, and media exposure. A binary logistic regression test does the determination of determinants.

Urban women are 1,124 times more likely to know the danger signs of pregnancy than rural women. Older age groups are more likely to know the danger signs of pregnancy than the 15-19 age group. The more educated a woman is, the higher the likelihood of knowing the danger signs of pregnancy. Married women are 1,914 times more likely to know the danger signs of pregnancy than women who have never been married. The better the socioeconomic status of a woman, the higher the possibility to know the danger signs of pregnancy. Women with the autonomy of health are 1,053 times more likely to know the danger signs of pregnancy than women who do not have independence. Women who are pregnant are 1,229 times more likely than women who are not pregnant. Media exposure in women has been found to have a good effect, the more exposed it is, the better the chances of knowing pregnancy signs.

Based on the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that all the tested variables, nine variables, are determinants of knowledge about the danger signs of pregnancy in Indonesia. The nine variables are the type of residence, age, education, occupation, marriage, parity, socioeconomic status, health independence, and media exposure.

Author: Ratna Dwi Wulandari Link: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232550

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