UNAIR NEWS – Lung tuberculosis (pulmonary TB) is a contagious chronic infectious disease. Tuberculosis incidence continues to increase from year to year. It inspired lecturers of FKp UNAIR to conduct research on the effectiveness of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination in preventing pulmonary TB.
Lailatun Nimah, S.Kep., Ns. M. Kep.,in a research said that TB treatment strategy with direct observation is the approach recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). The incidence of chronic cough and sputum testing positive for TB, she explained, was significantly higher found in men than in women.
“High population density, malnutrition is a supporting factor for TB. A history of contact with active tuberculosis patients and an increase in the number of family members is also associated with pulmonary TB with a positive sputum examination, ” she said.
From the results of research in Surabaya, she explained, 68 respondents with pulmonary TB and positive sputum examination of pulmonary TB showed, there was no difference in gender status in the risk of pulmonary TB. Most TB patients with sputum positive TB test, she said, are those who did not have jobs.
“Employment status can determine socioeconomic status. Low economic status affects the high rate of death caused by disease, ” she said.
Furthermore, he also emphasized that socioeconomic and behavioral factors were also shown to increase susceptibility to infections. The lower the economic status, she continued, the higher the risk of suffering from pulmonary TB.
“Most patients with positive pulmonary TB have low incomes. Someone’s income level is very influential on one’s behavior in maintaining personal and family health. The income will affect the purchasing power of adequate nutrition and housing needs, ” she explained.
Meanwhile, she continued, active smokers have a greater risk of developing pulmonary TB. People who smoke, according to her, experience disruption of mucosal secretion clearance, reduced ability of cells killing foreign substances and decreased immune response. Because the nicotine in cigarettes decreases the immune system so that smokers are more susceptible to pulmonary TB.
In the end, she also explained that the majority of respondents in the study had never had BCG vaccination as a child. The data, she continued, were obtained from interviews and checking BCG scars on the respondent’s arm.
“The level of education, smoking habits, occupation, knowledge, nutritional status, occupancy density, income and gender, showed correlation. Age and comorbidities do not have a significant correlation.”The most dominant factor in the incidence of pulmonary TB with positive phlegm of pulmonary TB in Indonesia is the status of BCG vaccination,” she concluded.
Author: Nuri Hermawan
Editor: Khefti Al Mawalia
Lailatun Nimah, Tintin Sukartini, Syarif Hidayatullah. 2019. Factors Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis of Positive Acid Fast Bacilli in Surabaya. Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development 10(8):2686.