Entrepreneurial spirit: Born or formed?

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When Indonesia experiences economic downturn and the number of unemployment rises, it is necessary to have entrepreneurs who can make new jobs. The government will not be able to work on all aspects of development. Therefore, people who have an entrepreneurial spirit will become a very important development potential and should be encouraged to become entrepreneurs.

A person can be an entrepreneur influenced by many factors, such as entrepreneurial spirit, entrepreneurship education, family, relationships, environment, and other factors. Many studies suggest that entrepreneurial desires are influenced by personal and environmental factors. On the other hand, there are those who argue that entrepreneurship tends to be one’s own potential and will develop more in the right environment, in other words it is agreed that the entrepreneurial spirit is a trait. Research that examines the spirit of entrepreneurship often uses a target population that only comes from one type so it becomes less diverse and less relevant. For example, only use samples from lecturers or from all with business background.

This study aims to examine the differences in entrepreneurial spirit in three different sample groups. The first group, students who received business education (accounting students), the second group were nonbusiness students (engineering students), and the third group were entrepreneurs who had carried out business activities (business practitioners).

Characteristics of Entrepreneurship

Various studies have revealed various characteristics of an entrepreneur. There are eight characteristics of entrepreneurship: (1) Desire for responsibility: having a sense of responsibility for the business he does. Introspective will be part of someone who has this responsibility; (2) Preference for moderate risk: entrepreneurs prefer moderate risk. In a sense he does not choose those who are low risk or too high; (3) Confidence in their ability in success: having confidence that will succeed; (4) Desire for immediate feedback: always want feedback quickly; (5) High level of energy: have hard work and passion to realize his desires; (6) Future orientation: have a perspective and insight far ahead; (7) Skill at organizing: having skills in organizing resources to create added value; (8) Value of achievement over money: value achievement more than money.

The sample of this study was 255 respondents with a survey method. Measurement of the spirit of entrepreneurship used Carland Entrepreneurship Index instrument, which was developed in 1992. As an extension of research conducted by Ciptono (1994), this study adds a variety of samples, business and non-business students and business actors / entrepreneurs for small businesses and intermediate. Each total sample of the three groups was 85 respondents, so the total respondents of this study were 255.

Sampling locations for business students were taken from the students of Faculty of Economics and Business Universitas Airlangga majoring in Accounting, samples of non-business students are taken from the Faculty of Science and Technology of Universitas Airlangga, most recently for entrepreneurs namely small and medium business actors will be taken from business actors from Ciputra University as an entrepreneurship university, where all students are UKM practitioners or entrepreneurs.

The results showed that the average consecutive CEI scores for business students, non-business students, and business groups were 17.72; 17.35; 17.23. Statistically, no empirical evidence was found for differences in the spirit of entrepreneurship in the three groups studied. It was concluded that the entrepreneurial spirit is inherent as a talent since humans are born. Business education is not (or has not) been able to become something that can trigger one’s entrepreneurial spirit. However, that does not mean that business education forever will not affect one’s entrepreneurial spirit. A deeper study of the business education curriculum in Indonesia is needed. The Indonesian government needs to review its education program. (*)


Niluh Made Dian Novita Handayani Narsa

Niluh Putu Dian Rosalina Handayani Narsa

I Made Narsa

Details of the study available at:


Narsa, Niluh Made Dian Novita Handayani, Narsa, Niluh Putu Dian Rosalina Handayani, and Narsa, I Made. (2019). The Spirit of Entrepreneurship in Business Students, Non-Business Students, and Small and Medium Entrepreneur. Jurnal Manajemen dan Kewirausahaan, 21 (2), 104-113.

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