Bitter lemon leaves can be used as antibacterial in freshwater fish farming

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Illustration by Feri Fenoria

UNAIR NEWS – Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria attacking freshwater fish. In freshwater fish farming, Aeromonas hydrophila infection reduces the quality. If it is left untreated, it causes various diseases such as Motile Aeromonas Septicaemia (MAS); Motile Aeromonad Infection (MAI); Hemorrhagic Septicemia; Red pest; until Red-sore.

The problem is made worse because Aeromonas hydrophila is immune to antibiotics. However, it can be treated with the use of phytopharmaca (herbal medicine that has been clinically tested, ed). A lecturer of Faculty of Fisheries and Marine UNAIR, Ir. Rahayu Kusdarwati M.Kes. has found plants with a potential as phytopharmaca. It is a bitter melon plant (Momordica charantia L.), the plant known as herbal plant because it has many benefits.

“Bitter melon has many properties and can be used as phytopharmaca. Furthermore, it turns out that bitter melon extract has antibacterial properties, “she explained.

Bitter melon leaf extract was tested using maceration method with ethanol 96%. Then the phytochemical compounds were tested qualitatively. The study was conducted to test the antibacterial activity of bitter melon extract against Aeromonas hydrophila. After conducting research with experiments, the results showed that the bitter melon leaf extract contained 32% alkaloids, 22% flavonoids, 1.37 mg / 100gr tannins, 1.6% terpenoids and 5.2% saponins.

“The antibacterial activity of the compound contained in bitter melon extract can be used as a reference in the treatment of diseases caused by Aeromonas hydrophila , ” she said.

Based on test data, the antibacterial activity of bitter melon extract against Aeromonas hydrophila was seen. “After being investigated, bitter melon leaf extract produces inhibitory zones with a diameter of 12.3 mm per 5 mg / ml against Aeromonas hydrophila, ” she explained.

The results also showed the presence of antibacterial activity that is included in the intermediate category. “The intermediate category indicates that treatment can be more effective if the dose used is higher,” Rahayu said.

Although the extract of bitter melon proved to be a potential phytofarmaca, Rahayu said that the use of antibacterial in medicine must meet the principles of drug use in general, such as diagnosis; drug; dosage; drug supply; and timeliness.

“The use of antibacterial against bacteria which is insensitive can cause incurability from bacterial infections as well as the risk of resistance to antibacterial drug,” she concluded. (*)

Author: Erika Eight Novanty

Editor: Nuri Hermawan

Reference : D A Masithoh, R Kusdarwati dan D Handijatno. Antibacterial activity of bitter gourd (Momordi cacharantia L.) leaf extract against Aeromonas hydrophila. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 236, conference 1

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