Correlation between types of parenting with the development of children aged 1-5 years

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Illustration of parenting (Source: Jawa Pos)

An important period in child development is at the age of 1-5 years, because at this time the basic growth will affect and determine the next child’s development. During this period, there are four aspects that are assessed to monitor children’s development: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social personalities and language. The number of children under five in Indonesia is around 12% of the total population.

The children under five years old are candidates for the nation’s successor, so the quality of their growth and development demand serious attention, especially in getting good and affordable stimulation from quality health services including detection and intervention for growth and development. Approximately 5-10% of children are estimated to have developmental delays.

The data on the incidence of general developmental delays are not known with certainty, but it is estimated that 1-3% of children under 5 years of age have general developmental delays. Parents’ parenting patterns greatly influence children’s growth and development, because parenting patterns show how parents pay attention to children’s wishes.

The patterns of parenting that are applied in various families, such as permissive, authoritarian and democratic parenting, this pattern will affect children’s development. Every parent should always follow and involve themselves with the growth and development of their children, both physically and mentally because by understanding the stages of a child’s growth and development, parents know what happens at a certain age and how to react to it.

Family is the first and foremost social environment for children so that it has the greatest influence on children’s development. Families, especially fathers and mothers, provide the basis for shaping children’s behavior, character, morals and education. The experience of interaction in the family will determine the patterns and behavior of children towards other people in society.

Good parenting is closely related to the child’s development to be good and on the other hand, poor parenting makes the child’s psychosocial development less good at the stage of development. Good parenting is a dynamic parenting style that is applied according to the child’s development. Good parenting patterns by always expressing affection (hugging, kissing, giving praise), exercising emotions and controlling children will result in children feeling cared for and will be more confident, so this will form a good child’s personality. This will greatly affect the development of children from an early age which includes personal social development, language, fine motor skills and gross motor skills.

Children who feel cared for and loved by their parents have no fear of associating with other people, children are more expressive, creative, are not afraid to try new things so that children’s development, especially children under 5 years, will be maximized. There is a correlation between the type of parenting and the development of children aged 1-5 years, from 345 parents and children studied.

Extracted from an article: “Correlation between Types of Parenting with the Development of Children Aged 1-5 Years” published in the Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, December 2019, Vol 10, No 12 page: 1661-5.

Author: Irwanto

The full article can be accessed at the following journal link:

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Media komunikasi dan informasi seputar kampus Universitas Airlangga (Unair).

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