Coal dust exposure and gingival lead line in coal miners

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A healthy body is highly related to the productivity of coal miners. Coal miners are very vulnerable to the conditions of their work environment. Every day coal miners breathe coal dust in maximum lung capacity because of the high demand for O2 in carrying out daily performance. Coal dust contains less than 1% lead (Pb). The dust can enter the body through the mouth, breath, and skin. Lead contained in coal dust can react with sulfur and form gingival lead. Smoking habits are also thought to be a factor in the uptake of Pb by alveoli in the lungs. Too high a Pb absorption will cause visible signs in the mouth. Excessive Pb absorption will make marks like black lines drawn following the contour of the gums.

The research is an observational study with a cross-sectional design, the sampling is done within a particular time, and there is no intervention on the sample. The first objective of this study is to find signs of excess Pb absorption, which is toxic and disturbs the health of coal miners. The second objective is to determine whether there is a relationship between the black line on the gums and the age, years of service, and smoking habits of coal miners. The research subjects were 100 coal miners in Kontak Makmur District, Banjar Regency. The number of samples was calculated using the Slovin formula and obtained 80 people as samples and determined by a simple random sampling technique. The sample obtained was then determined the value of the score leadline gingival, as was done by Sudibyo. The degrees of the gingival lead line is assessed based on the following scores: 0 = no gingival lead line; 1 = gingival lead line found on 1-2 labial surfaces of the anterior marginal gingival teeth; 2 = gingival lead line found on 3-4 labial surfaces of the anterior marginal gingival teeth; 3 = gingival lead line on> 4 labial surface of the anterior marginal gingival teeth. Besides, age, years of service, and smoking habits were the variables measured in this study. The data obtained were analyzed using the chi-square test with a = 5%.

The chi-Square analysis is used because the research data of all variables are in the form of ordinal and nominal scales. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a significant relationship between the lead line variable and age, the lead line variable with years of service, and the lead line variable with smoking habits. For some coal miners who have not worked for too long, there is no black line drawn on the gums. The young coal miners also show no signs of black lines on the gums. For coal miners who have a smoking habit, the black line is undeniable compared to non-smoking miners.

The conclusion of gingivialleadline in coal miners is related to age, years of service, and smoking habits. Suggestions for further research are necessary to carry out a research design and data analysis to distinguish between causative or confounding variables.

 

 

Author: Widodo, Sahdhina Rismawati, Eko Suhartono, R. Darmawan Setijanto

Link: https://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/10764

(Coal Dust Exposure and Gingivial Lead Line in Coal Miners)

(Coal Dust Exposure and Gingivial Lead Line in Coal Miners)

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