Early preterm and late preterm birth sociodemography: What’s the difference?

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Illustration of childbirth. (Source: Halodoc)

Preterm birth or childbirth is still a problem worldwide including in Indonesia, in this case related to the problem of prevalence, morbidity and perinatal mortality. Moreover, preterm birth is also a major cause of infant death and the second leading cause of death after pneumonia in children under the age of five, even now more than one million babies die from preterm birth every year in the world or in other words 1 baby dies every 30 seconds, a tremendous number!

We need to know, what are the risk factors making it happen?

Preterm birth according to WHO is a labor that occurs between 28 weeks’ gestation to less than 37 weeks (259 days), calculated from the first day of last menstrual period (HPHT) in a 28-day cycle, with the classifications: very early preterm birth between 20- 23 weeks, early preterm birth between 24-33 weeks, and late preterm birth between 34-36 weeks. In this research we see so many risk factors that can be generated based on maternal sociodemographic characteristics, so we look for whether there are significant differences between mothers who experience early preterm labor (22-33 weeks) and late preterm (34-36 weeks).

This research was conducted in primiparous and multiparous mothers after preterm labor recorded in medical records at 8 hospitals in East Java, totaling 134 mothers (45 mothers with early preterm birth and 89 mothers with late preterm birth), 18. 7%, at RSI Jemur sari, 10.4% at Soewandhi Hospital, 18.7% at Universitas Airlangga Hospital, 9.0% at Ibnu Sina Gresik Regional Hospital, 17.9% at Sidoarjo Regional Hospital, 9.0% at Jombang Regional Hospital, 7.5% at Sogaten Madiun Regional Hospital and 9.0% at Ngawi Regional General Hospital.

The results of the analysis of maternal sociodemographic characteristics between childbirth of early preterm and late preterm, there were 30 maternal sociodemographic characteristics and only three significant characteristics related: mothers with low education 50.7%, smoking mothers during pregnancy 8.2%, and mothers who did ANC

Mothers who have low education tend to experience symptoms of depression due to lack of knowledge about handling risk factors for preterm childbirth (OR 2.0), even in previous research maternal education was also associated with a low level of husband’s education (p 0.023). While mothers who have the habit of smoking in this study (OR 0.6) are low, but the risk can increase if mothers smoke cigarettes.

≥10 cigarettes per day can change to OR 2.44. The number of ANC visits made by mothers during pregnancy is also a low risk (OR.0.37). The Ministry of Health said at least 4 visits during pregnancy: first trimester one visit (before 14 weeks gestation), second trimester one visit (before 14-28 weeks gestation), trimester III two visits (gestational age between 28-36 weeks) and after gestational age> 36 weeks).

The results of this research indicate that there are differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of early preterm and late preterm labor in primiparous and multiparous mothers: education, smoking, and the number of ANC visits during pregnancy. They can be used as basic research for subsequent research in efforts to prevent preterm childbirth disorders based on sociodemography in primiparous and multiparous mothers.

Author: Budi Santoso, Sriyana Herman

Details of this research available at:


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Media komunikasi dan informasi seputar kampus Universitas Airlangga (Unair).

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