Periodontal disease is an infection or inflammation that occurs in the dental supporting tissue or periodontal tissue. Periodontal tissue consists of several layers that can support the teeth to stay upright and strong in the mouth. Along with other systemic diseases, HIV / AIDS virus infection also affect the periodontal tissue in the oral cavity, causing inflammation called periodontitis. Periodontal tissue inflammation is associated with interactions between the host (human) immune system and pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria) with periodontal tissue, as well as plaque that attaches to the surface of the teeth and gums. This inflammation process causes damage to the attachment of periodontal tissue to the teeth. With HIV / AIDS infection, the damage will be even worse.
HIV / AIDS infection is one of the diseases that has attacked many people in the world. Data obtained from UNAIDS in 2016, about 36.7 million people worldwide were infected with the HIV and claimed 1 million lives. Risk factors for HIV / AIDS infection include sexual behavior such as homosexuality, free sex, and the use of non-sterile needles for drug users. HIV / AIDS virus can be transmitted through sexual connection, transfusions of body fluids such as blood, genital fluids, as well as tears, saliva, and sweat.
East Java is the second highest number of HIV / AIDS sufferers after DKI Jakarta, with 19.249 people. Surabaya city in East Java is also a concern. Based on data obtained from the Sememi Health Center, 673 people suffer from AIDS, which is reportedly caused by free sex lifestyle (67%). In 2017, there were 60 Sememi residents who were homosexuals (LGBT) and eleven of them were HIV positive.
References stated that periodontal disease is very susceptible to happen in people with HIV / AIDS, but data in the Sememi Health Center on oral health of patients with HIV / AIDS is still very limited, especially data on periodontal disease. For this reason, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between periodontal disease and HIV / AIDS infection in HIV / AIDS sufferers in the Sememi Community Health Center, Surabaya.
This study was conducted at the LGBT community around Sememi Community Health Center, Surabaya. There were 30 respondents, 20 of them were transgender people, and the remaining 10 were homosexuals. From a total of 30 respondents, 16 of them were HIV / AIDS positive sufferers. Respondents were given questionnaires related to self-identity, such as age, gender, and health status. The data will be cross tabulated with oral and periodontal examination results, including OHI-S examination, xerostomia status, and periodontal examination (pocket status, Bleeding on Probing, and Loss of Attachment) measured to determine the condition of periodontal tissue.
From the results, the data obtained showed more than 50% of respondents who are members of the LGBT community in the Sememi area have xerostomia cases (low saliva / saliva production), and have abnormalities in their periodontal tissue. This result is in line with the theory which states that periodontal disease is also influenced by body systemic abnormalities, including HIV / AIDS infection. The results of the study showed that the health status of the periodontal tissue in the LGBT community in Sememi was classified as poor, which was marked by the results of periodontal tissue examination.
Author: Dr. Titiek Berniyanti, drg., M.Kes
Details of the research available at:
Berniyanti T, Setijanto RD, Hariyani N, Romadhoni SF. Relationship Between HIV/AIDS and Periodontal health Status among Population at High Risk ofHIV/AIDS. Acta Med Philippina 2019;53(5):412-416