UNAIR NEWS – Infectious diseases still cause widespread effects in society. According to World Health Organization (WHO), infectious diseases are ranked second as the leading cause of death in the world. Infections have also become the major issue in developing countries. Many people suffer from diseases of Enterobacteria microbes, including Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, and Klebsiella.
As infectious diseases develop, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) emerges as one of the biggest health challenges in almost all parts of the world. The issue of antimicrobial resistance is becoming a public health issue attracting public attention. Antimicrobial resistance occurs when microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites undergo changes, so the drugs used to cure infections become ineffective as microorganisms are resistant and difficult to cure.
According to WHO, this problem poses a serious threat to public health, including in Indonesia. The problem arises due to the unwise use of antimicrobials leading to ineffective antimicrobial therapy. Quoted from the Indonesian Ministry of Health, the mortality rate due to Antimicrobial Resistance up to 2014 was 700,000 per year. With the rapid development and spread of bacterial infections, it is estimated that in 2050, deaths due to AMR are greater than deaths caused by cancer, reaching 10 million people.
Seeing that condition, Dra. Suzana Apt., M.Si. as a lecturer in Faculty of Pharmacy made innovation for the development of antimicrobial resistance drugs (AMR). Dra. Suzana together with Sulistyowati, Isnaeni, and Budiati conducted research entitled “Synthesis, Docking Molecule and Antibacterial Activity of N’ – (4-Fluorobenzylidene)-4-hydroxybenzohydrazide and N’-(4-Fluorobenzylidene)-4-hydroxybenzohydrazide”.
“My research uses docking methods for molecular and antibacterial activity to produce increasing negative degrees of free energy,” said Dra. Suzana
Dra. Suzana said the molecular docking method is a method to predict the tendency of a molecule when bound to one another to form a stable unit. Docking is conducted based on a computer basis and carried out to achieve the optimal molecular order to produce free energy. The docking method is useful for learning about drugs and protein interactions by identifying active sites that are suitable for protein.
Synthesis of N ‘- (4-Fluorobenzylidene) -4-hydroxybenzohydrazide and N’ – (4-Fluorobenzylidene) -4-hydroxybenzohydrazide compounds is proven effective to ward off resistant bacteria by destroying bacterial cell contents leading to bacterial death.
He also said that the increasing antimicrobial resistance was caused not only by the unwise use of antibiotics in humans but also in the agriculture, livestock and fisheries sectors. The latter causes infections in animals and plants and they are difficult to treat. Then the spread of resistant germs from livestock and food contamination by antibiotic-resistant bacteria can infect humans and they will be immune to antibiotics.
Antimicrobial resistance is a complex problem. It requires cross-sectoral coordination between human health, animal health and food security for a more comprehensive handling.
So far, in her journal, Dra. Suzana used two bacteria in her research, including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. She said it would be better if there was a variance in test studies with other bacteria for maximum results.
“I hope there will be more research in developing antimicrobial resistance drugs with high-activity compounds that can be tested with bacteria,” she stated.
Author : Tunjung Senja Widuri
Editor : Khefti Al Mawalia
Details of this research paper can be seen at