Heavy metal includes stressors for aquatic organisms. Various physical, chemical, and polluted stressors can cause cellular homeostatic, survival and cells signalling disorders (Afanas’ev, 2010; Rocha et al., 2010). Homeostatic disorders such as growth stimulation, signalling and cell survival are mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) produced by cells in response to stressors. Besides, increasing ROS production, various stressors also increase the production of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) (Izyumova et al., 2010). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) represents as antioxidant enzymes which responsible to converse the superoxide anion radicals to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen and it is important to control the ROS levels (Perry et al., 2010). Malondialdehyde (MDA) is necessary as an oxidative stress marker.
MDA is the final product of lipid peroxidation and extremely used to define oxidative stress (Bulut et al., 2007). This study was focused to analyze the water in Gempol, Pasuruan Regency, East Java Indonesia. These waters are a place for household activities and for irrigating rice fields. However, the water in this area is traversed by factory waste located in the area. Factory waste discharged into the water contains organic and inorganic materials including heavy metals. Based on a preliminary study in 2017, the metals found in this water was mercury, lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper. Heavy metals including mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) have high toxicity and accumulate in the body of the organism (Soegianto et al., 2010; Murthy et al., 2011).
Some aquatic worms are found in wastewater treatment such as Tubificidae, Lumbriculidae and Aeolosomatidae. One of the Annelids that survive in the water in this area is Tubifex sp. worms. Tubificidae (eg Tubifex) has a high consumption rate, long life span and has the ability to tolerate pollutants and toxic compounds in aquatic ecosystems (Zhang, 2012). Therefore, due to the danger of heavy metal and the importance of the water in this area, it is necessary to study the effect of heavy metals on Tubifex sp.worms in this contaminated water. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in Tubifex sp. worms and to observe the biological effects of heavy metals in Tubifex sp. tissue by using histology.
This research employed a survey method, while the measurement of SOD and MDA was conducted using Bio Assay Kits and Histology was carried out using a dot slide Olympus microscope. The results showed that the highest levels of SOD in Tubifex sp. worms was ST2 (12.29 ± 0.08 U/mL), whereas the concentration of MDA decreased with the lowest MDA level was ST2 (15.40 ± 7.07 nmol/g). Heavy metals cause damage to Tubifex sp. worm tissues, especially in the dermis layer (necrosis) and body cavity (hypotrophy) throughout by histology
To find out more in detail EFFECT OF HEAVY METALS ON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD), MALONDIALDEHYDE (MDA), AND EPIDERMAL HISTOLOGY OF TUBIFEX SP. WORM can be read in the following paper
Title: EFFECT OF HEAVY METALS ON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD), MALONDIALDEHYDE (MDA), AND EPIDERMAL HISTOLOGY OF TUBIFEX SP. WORM
Writer: IRAWATI MEI WIDIASTUTI, ASUS MAIZAR SURYANTO HERTIKA, MUHAMMAD MUSA, DIANA ARFIATI AND AGOES SOEGIANTO*
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