Surabaya is a city as the second largest coastal city in Indonesia. In the National Long Term Development Plan, Surabaya is designated as the National Development Center of eastern Indonesia so that it is very interesting to relate the planning and design of Surabaya in addressing the current global warming Issues.
In addressing the problem of global warming, the role of mangrove protected areas (MPA) in the Eastern Coast of Surabaya (ECS, the local name is Pamurbaya) is very important because the area is the only wide and remaining mangrove ecosystem in Surabaya. Moreover, these areas, as habitat for many species of mangroves, fish, and many various animals, has an important role in the sustainability of the local economy and development of Surabaya.
In addition, MPA is an important part of Spatial Planning of Surabaya 2009-2029 because it is green open space of the Surabaya city. Formal regulations in Indonesia bring the proportion of urban green open space in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia on Act No 26 the year 2007 on Spatial Planning, which sets a minimum of 30% green city open spaces of the total city area and the proportion of public green open spaces in urban areas shall be at least 20 (twenty) percent of the total area of the city. According to Bappeko (2016), the percentage of the areas of ECS of the city is 7,48 %, ie. area of ECS are 2,503,9 hectares and areas of the city of Surabaya are 33,451.00 hectares.
That is why the mangrove area in ECS must be determined as MPA in order to support sustainable development of the city of Surabaya. The MPA determination is based on the Surabaya City Regulation No 12 year 2014 (Formerly the regulation number 3 years 2007). The MPA provides protection on a local scale in the surrounding area or city scale and serves as a water catchment area, flood prevention, erosion, and to protect ecosystems in the area.
Determination of the area aims to preserve the potential and natural resources, prevent the occurrence of environmental damage, and avoid various businesses and / or activities in the land area that can cause environmental damages. Mangrove ecosystem damage also occurred in the Pamurbaya. A review of 2008 is known that the condition of 40% or about 400 acres mangrove forests in the region of ECS is in damaged condition (Respati, 2013). There was 29.8 km long coastline of mangrove in the region of ECS, now only 8.7 km of mangrove vegetation is overgrown with a thickness of not more than 50 meters. This is very different from the situation in the 1990s, where the thickness of the mangrove forest can be more than 50 meters and they grew up along the shoreline in Pamurbaya.
Such conditions make the environmental quality in Pamurbaya decline because the less mangrove forest area will be more erosion. According to Olaniyi et al. (2012), mangroves dominating coastal locations exhibit less erosion than areas with non-vegetated land areas. Another problem related to the area is that some of the MPA lands has been owned by the community for a long time. They use the conservation area for aquaculture. According to Parks et al. (1994), the conversion of mangrove ecosystems to shrimp ponds may have obtained short-term profit at the expense of long-term productivity.
For the benefit of conservation or protection of the area, the local government must compensate for the loss of the coastal lands. This problem is one of the causes of mangrove damage in the MPA. Local government conflicts with these communities often occur in protected areas, such as those occurring in Segara Anakan investigated by Dharmawan (2017). Therefore, the handling of mangroves in ECS is very important so that the ecosystem damage is not getting worse.
One useful mangrove function is to serve as a coastal defence system against the tidal storms, tsunamis and ocean waves (Olaniyi, et al.,2012). From the description above, the issues that need to be elaborated are (1) to what extent the utilization of coastal lands in the MPA ?, (2) how the productivity of communities’ ponds because part of the lands used by the community, (3) how is the trend of coastal land changes in the MPA so that the condition can be utilized to strengthen the function of the MPA ? This paper aims to provide alternative solutions to the above problems by 1). assessing the utilization of land in the MPA, including the constraints, extent and types of utilization with GIS method/approach, 2). evaluating pond productivity with linear regression, 3). analyzing the changing trends of land areas using a dynamic model that can strengthen the MPA functions. They are the main capitals to support sustainable coastal resource management in MPA Pamurbaya.
Research results conclude three points and it requires serious attention related to unsustainable resource in MPA Pamurbaya. First, there are differences between planning and implementation in terms of coastal land use. Second, brackishwater ponds is not appropriate because their production tends to decrease. Third, the replenishment of coastal land tends to increase but does not affect the MPA Pamurbaya area. This finding is an unsustainable cause of coastal land use in the MPA Pamurbaya. Therefore, they must be taken seriously by the local government to achieve sustainable development of MPA Pamurbaya.
To find out more details about Assessment of the Mangrove Protected Area in the Eastern Coast of Surabaya can be read in the following research.
Title: Assessment of the Mangrove Protected Area in the Eastern Coast of Surabaya
Authors: Viv Djanat Prasita, Nuhman, Agus Subianto and Agoes Soegianto *
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