The intensive and supraintensive system of vaname shrimp (L. vannamei) cultivation that uses high stocking density gives a high increase in production. However, it has an adverse effect which causes the deterioration in water quality so that shrimp growth will be disrupted and reduce the body’s resistance to disease infections and cause death. One of the disease-causing agents that often attack shrimp cultivation is bacteria, especially the Vibrio sp. One of the main water quality parameters for shrimp to grow optimally is the supply of oxygen that dissolves in water. Characteristics of Vibrio sp bacteria are opportunistic pathogens, i.e. organisms that are normally present in the maintenance environment that develop into pathogens when the environmental conditions and host are deteriorated. The dominance and abundance of unstable Vibrio sp bacteria in the ponds indicate a risk condition for shrimp health problems. Therefore, the presence of these bacteria must always be monitored during the maintenance period by counting the number of Presumptive Vibrio Count (PVC) to determine the population of Vibrio sp. The high loss due to Vibrio sp bacterial infection in vaname shrimp causes the need for better application of cultivation technology.
One of the technologies developed to improve the quality of cultivation is using nanobubble technology. The nanobubble system, oxygen in the waters can be available in a long time so that it can maintain the level of dissolved oxygen in the waters remain stable. Oxygen in the form of nanobubbles will catch pollutants suspended in liquid and float to the surface. That suspended pollutants are not the same in size or shape. Large bubbles fail to bind to pollutants, but nanoscale bubbles are able to penetrate small cavities in contaminants so they can wrap solids and make them lifted. Oxygen in water is also needed to break down organic materials that accumulate in water, so there will be no increased number in ammonia levels, which is a threat to aquatic animals. The development of nanobubble technology is expected to improve the quality of aquaculture systems by maintaining a balance condition between the environment, fish/shrimp, and pathogens.
Method and Result
The first step carried out in this research is the maintenance of the shrimp using nanobubble for 30 days. The treatment containers were given nanobubble supplies two times per day. After 30 days of maintenance, a bacterial culture media preparation was carried out. Then after the bacterial culture media had been prepared, the next was sampling. The sample used consisted of media maintenance water and vaname shrimp (L. vannamei) taken from the cultivation basin. Water samples attack of 1 ml that subsequently dissolved in 9 ml physiological saline. Samples of vaname shrimp (L. vannamei) were dissected aseptically for hepatopancreas taken and weighed up to 1 gram. The hepatopancreas was mashed up using mortar and pestle and dissolved in 9 ml of physiological NaCl. After incubation for 18-24 hours at room temperature (28-30oC), then the PVC is counted and identification of Vibrio sp.
The results showed that the use of nanobubble in vaname shrimp (L. vannamei) gave a lower value of Presumptive Vibrio Count (PVC) compared to using an ordinary aerator. The use of nanobubble will produce water quality in cultivation media that can be optimized by making small air bubbles so that buoyancy is also smaller and the impact is not broken easily. The dissolved oxygen content in the waters will become more stable. Besides that, the cultivation system with nanobubble uses a recirculation system so that the water quality in the cultivation media can also be controlled. This is different from aerators which produce large bubbles so that they break easily and cause fluctuations or instability of dissolved oxygen in the water.
Writer: Dr. Gunanti Mahasri, Ir., M.Si.
Detail information from this research can be seen in the text at:
Mahasri, G., Harifa, A. I., Sudarno. (2019). Oxygen Dissolved Nanobubble Technology Improved the Quality of Pacific White Shrimp Cultivation. Indian Veterinary Journal, 96(05) : 37-39.