Obesity or being overweight is a condition where there is excessive fat accumulation in the body and has a negative impact on health. Obesity is a global health problem with prevalence increasing every year. Based on data from the Basic Health Research (Riskedas) in 2010 and 2013, the prevalence of adolescents aged 16-18 years with overnutrition increased from 1.4 percent to 7.3 percent and East Java province is included in 15 provinces with the prevalence of obese adolescents aged 16-18 years exceeding the national prevalence value with a prevalence rate of 8.2 percent. Obesity occurs in all age groups, including adolescents. Obesity in adolescence can have an impact on decreased academic achievement, mental health disorders, until metabolic diseases.
Obesity may occur if energy intake exceeds energy exhausted, which results in an imbalance of energy or calories. Macronutrients consisting of carbohydrates, fats, proteins are contributors to calories and high-calorie diet. It has proven to be one of the causes of obesity. Some research results showed an increase in macronutrient intake on weekends compared to normal days, and it contributes to weight gain.
Adolescence is a transition from childhood to adulthood, which is characterized by significant environmental influences, including changes in eating patterns. The influence of peers can affect adolescent eating behavior in urban areas. For example, eating habits outside the house, especially on weekends. Weekends are usually used by most people for a refreshing session from work by spending time with family or friends, eating out in cafes or restaurants. The results of previous studies showed that at weekends fast-food restaurants experienced an increase in visits compared to normal days, from 13.2% to 18.7%. Food intake on weekends generally contains more calories with a higher total fat content. The high consumption of food and drinks purchased outside should be considered in its relation to food intake at weekends as the prevention of obesity.
This study was conducted cross-sectionally in 2018 to 82 adolescents aged 16-18 years at SMAN in Surabaya to analyze the differences in food intake on normal days and weekends on male and female adolescents in urban areas. The students’ food intake is assessed on weekdays and weekends to determine the amount of energy, carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes. Nutritional status was also measured by weighing their weight and height. Weight measurement is carried out in the mornings and weekends to see the difference and assess whether there is weight gain on weekends.
The study showed that about 9.8% of adolescents were classified as overnutrition, and 18.3% suffer from obesity. The average allowance per day is 23 thousand rupiah and 85% with low to moderate physical activity. This study showed that there was an increase in energy intake at weekends in both adolescent boys and girls with an average increase of 35.05 kcal in women and 34.33 in men. The study also showed an increase in carbohydrate intake at weekends by 11.82 grams in female students and 11.02 grams in male students. The average fat intake at weekends increased 3.15 grams in female students and 2.85 grams in male students. The average protein intake at weekends increased by 0.03 grams in female students and 10.25 grams in male students.
There were 46 of the 82 students who gained weight over the weekend. The average body weight at weekends increased by 0.35 kg in female students and 0.31 in male students. Although it was relatively small, an increase in energy intake and macronutrients continuously can cause a significant increase in body weight in a year and have an impact on changes in the increasing nutritional status of adolescents. Teenagers are expected to pay attention to food intake at weekends both in terms of quality and quantity.
Author: Farapti, dr., M.Gizi
Details of this study can be viewed in our article at
Syafira K, Farapti F (2019). The Different Intake of Energy and Macronutrient on Weekdays and Weekend among Adolescent in Urban City. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, 10(3): 401-406. DOI Number: 10.5958/0976-5506.2019.00527.8