UNAIR NEWS – Jaundice in infants or called hyperbilirubinemia is a clinical symptom experienced by newborns. The triggers are diverse, one of them is the different blood types between the mother and the fetus. So what happens with the prospective mother with O blood type?
O Blood type is not known to “befriend” other blood types. This property affects when a woman with O blood type is pregnant. As it rejects other blood groups, there is antigen reactions from the fetus. This condition results an increase of bilirubin in infants.
The Head of IDAI’s Working Unit Coordination (UKK) II Dr Toto Wisnu Hendrarto, dr., SpA (K) said, the process of bilirubin increase in infants can be caused due to different blood types between the infant and the mother. Of the several blood types, women with O blood type are at most risk of having a baby with acute-level hyperbilirubinemia.
Toto explained, during the process of pregnancy, maternal blood transfers nutrients and oxygen to the baby through the umbilical cord. If there is a blood group difference between the mother and the fetus, the mother’s blood will form the antigen, resulting an antigen reaction. This condition then destroys the fetal red blood cells.
“If the mother has O blood group, while her child is not, in the body of the mother blood has formed anti-O. Anti O that destroys the baby’s red blood cells. This condition causes the occurrence of hyperbiliribunemia, “he said.
Actually hyperbilirubinemia in infants can be diagnosed early on by knowing the blood type of the mother since pregnancy.
“When the mother’s O blood type is known, then the doctor has coded to be more vigilant about the potential danger in the future,” he said.
Women with O blood type actually have a greater potential to deliver babies with bilirubin encephalopathy and the potential for severe complications. Bilirubin which is not soluble in fat will stick in the brain causing permanent brain damage, and lead to death.
“If his mother has O blood type while his father is not, and the baby is not O blopd typed, it is necessary to do early detection. The Rh factor should be identified, “he added.
Pediatrician of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Airlangga Dr. Soetomo Agus Haryanto, dr., SpA (K) recommends pregnant women to check blood group early on.
“Ironically, 90 percent of maternal patients delivered at Dr. Hospital. Soetomo do not know their blood type. Therefore, it is important to detect the blood type since pregnancy. Because many babies born with symptoms of hyperbilirubinemia were due to their parents inability to know their blood type, “he said.
Agus explained, if the baby is known to have two-stage hyperbilirubinemia accompanied by fever and seizures, then 90 percent will lead to mortality. Meanwhile, if the baby can still be saved, exchange transfusion should be done.
“This method can help the baby survive but only 10 percent and the risk of disability,” he said.
Although people consider yellow babies to be normal, but not all yellow babies are considered normal. If the bilirubin level is too high and the baby does not get proper treatment, it can lead to severe kernicterus or complications. The impact of these complications can disrupt the brain’s nervous system permanently.
The medical world recognizes kernicterus as a severe complication of hyperbilirubinemia, wherein bilirubin levels in the baby’s body (blood bilirubin> 20 mg / dl) can result in permanent neuronal disturbance.
The case of hyperbilirubinemia in Surabaya was recorded as many as 6-8 cases per year from 450 yellow babies.
“It’s the recorded one, I think there are a lot from the unregistered and they die at homes,” he said.
Unfortunately, until now there has been no accurate data showing the amount of cases of hyperbilirubinemia in Indonesia. Whereas if we have local data, we can do mapping for the purposes of early intervention. The more preventable early on, the more optimal the baby’s quality of life in the future, “he said. (*)
Author: Sefya Hayu Istighfaricha
Editor: Binti Q. Masruroh