UNAIR NEWS – Five Biomedical Engineering students from the Faculty of Science and Technology (FST) of Universitas Airlangga succeeded in making innovations in the form of synthetic biodegradable blood vessels for atherosclerosis. They are Iffa Aulia Fiqrianti, Claudia Yolanda Savira, Muhammad Abdul Manaf, Fitria Renata Bella, and Nadia Rifqi Cahyani.
The artificial blood vessel is an implant needed for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Blockage of blood vessels in atherosclerosis patients can lead to various diseases, including stroke, angina, and coronary heart disease.
As reported by the World Health Organization, cardiovascular disease is non-communicable diseases with the second highest mortality rate in the world, reaching 46% of thirty-eight mortality. While in Indonesia, it causes 37% of the total death of non-communicable diseases (WHO, 2014).
Then three million cases of vascular bypass surgery using blood vessel graft are carried out annually to overcome atherosclerosis . Graft from donors and animals is abandoned because it can cause rejection reactions by the patient’s body, while the graft from the patient’s own body has quality problems because the patient has experienced vascular disease.
“The commercial synthetic graft is made from Dacron, so it is susceptible to calcification. Therefore it takes artificial (synthetic) graft that is safe for the patient’s body, “said Iffa Aulia Fiqrianti, head of innovation team.
Under the guidance of Dr. Prihartini Widiyanti, drg., Kes., the team of researchers trying to create an artificial blood vessel made of poly L . Lactic acid (PLLA), chitosan, and collagen. Then compiled in the proposal Exacta Research Student Creativity Program (PKMPE). The proposal entitled “Study In Vivo Vascular Graft Hollow Fiber PLLA Coating Chitosan-Collagen Cardiovascular Disease Solution Due to Atherosclerosis” has passed Dikti and obtained research grants in the program Kemenristekdikti 2016-2017 PKM.
“We try to make the blood vessels of poly L . Lactic acid (PLLA), chitosan and collagen. PLLA is safe for the body, because it will decompose into lactic acid that can be absorbed by the body. The combination of chitosan and collagen can help cell attachment, so in the future the graft decomposes and will be replaced by the patient’s own body cells, “said Iffa.
This is in contrast to the commercial synthetic graft made of Dacron that is difficult to decompose and is considered a “foreign body part” by the patient’s body. Therefore, we expect this characteristic to improve the patients’ quality of life who have done vascular bypass surgery,” Iffa added.
“The results of this study are very good to apply, because endothelial cells can grow on the surface of the graft cavity, so blood can flow smoothly and reduce the likelihood of thrombosis. For the stage of clinical application of course the process is still long, but this is a good start, “said dr. Herry Wibowo M. Kes. Sp.B., commented.
Blood vessels are fiber– shaped tubes made with electrospinning . Artificial blood vein composition test using FTIR shows chitosan, collagen and PLLA has been contained in the graft . Blood contact test showed that graft did not cause hemolysis with a percentage of 1.04%.
The observations under the electron microscope showed that the fiber diameter formed ranges from 300-150 nano meters, with wall thickness of 379.3 μm, 262.5 μm, and 97.98 μm. The results of cytotoxicity test show that artificial blood vessels are not toxic, so it is safe for the body. (*)
Editor: Bambang Bes