SINCE the beginning of 21st century, the medical world has been through a lot of revolution, especially in the aspect of molecular epidemiology. One of the inventions which become the milestone in medical development is genomics.
To be known, genomics is one of molecular biology techniques which are developed from the theory of expression, regulation, and genetic structures in human body. As time goes by, genomics is seen not to be capable enough to explain the complex process in human body which consists of approximately 100,000 genes. Not to mention that every gene is able to produce more than one kinds of protein with various functions.
The combination of different kinds of protein will produce different functions too. In this case, genomics is unusable to predict the dynamic property and structure from all the protein chains. Therefore, comes the term of proteomics which studies about protein function and structure in particular.
The research conducted by Akhter J et al in 2009 proposed that proteomics is highly useful in clinical medicine, namely in prognosis and diagnostic test, therapeutic target identification, and therapy on particular disease.
Indonesia is a tropical country. This is proven by the fact that one of its provinces is located on the Equator line. Indonesia is also known as the country with the biggest mega biodiversity of flora and fauna in the world, including diseases.
Diseases in Indonesia as a tropical country have different specification compare to the ones in countries with four seasons. Diseases like dengue fever, malaria, leprosy, filariasis, diarrhea, TBC, avian influenza, are emerging and re-emerging diseases with high prevalence or number of cases and are unsolvable until now.
The use of proteomics in emerging and re-emerging vaccines particularly avian influenza (one of lethal diseases, puts Indonesia the number one country in the world for the total of human victims) has been proven.
One of the research results about this is the discovery of reacted protein between H5N1 virus in the field and homologous and heterologous avian influenza vaccines. According to a research result from Qosimah (2008), H5N1 virus in the field can be used to learn the reaction of homologous and heterologous H5N1 vaccines based on the protein expression.
Another research result related to proteomics and influenza vaccines, particularly avian influenza, is from Hayati (2012) who discovered that birds which have been given avian influenza vaccines have different protein expression compare to isolated avian influenza carriers. This signals us that according to proteomics analysis, virus which is taken out from the post vaccination hospice has been undergone a mutation or transformation.
Besides the two aforementioned researches, proteomics related to influenza vaccines, particularly avian influenza is a research by Alamudi (2013). The result of this research suggested that influenza vaccines, particularly avian influenza, have different ways in giving protection from the avian influenza infection from birds in the field in terms of proteomics. The avian influenza infection from birds in hospice will induct the occurrence of apoptosis and inflammation.
Different case happens when the infection of avian influenza virus comes from human. In terms of protein expression or proteomics, when post vaccination infection happens, not only hospice will respond by causing apoptosis and inflammation, it will also induct the occurrence of barrier mechanism to new virions formation and inter cell virus progeny distribution.
From the above explanation, it is expected that new researches in the field of proteomics will emerge, particularly in the field of formulating vaccines against emerging and re-emerging diseases such as dengue fever, malaria, filariasis, and TBC. (*)
Editor: Bambang Bes