Beware of Disease Transmission in Hospital

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Illustration: UNAIR NEWS.

UNAIR NEWS – At the moment, the number of cases of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA is getting higher. This disease is drawing attention globally, even in Indonesia as its transmission happens in hospital therefore it is also a threat for patients staying in hospital. MRSA is a superbug difficult to treat.

MRSA was found for the first time in England 1961. MRSA is a special kind of Staphylococcus aureus which is resistant to methiciline (type of antibiotics). But because of its medication is limited, this infection is difficult to treat. Therefore, years by years its prevalence is getting higher.

The professor of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine (FK) Universitas Airlangga Prof. Dr. Kuntaman, dr., MS., Sp.MK-K in an interview stated that the prevalence of MRSA infection is getting higher in Indonesia. According to the data, MRSA carriers in 20101 were 0.05 percent and it is currently predicted at 8 percent.

This rising prevalence also happens in RSUD Dr Soetomo. As the biggest referred hospital in East Java, RSUD Dr Soetomo keeps receiving patients from any regions. It means that the more patients treated, the more germs or bacteria existing in hospital.

Therefore, Prof Kuntaman suggested the big referred hospital to be able to suppress the infection of MRSA. It should not be done only in big hospital but also the smaller ones.

“If it isn’t done, referred hospital will only be ‘a washing machine’. After a patient cured, another patient infected, it happens on and on,” he said.

Rational use of antibiotics

MRSA infection suppression can be done through eradication project which is working on by Prof Kuntaman with some other microbiology experts, through controlling the use of antibiotics in the public.

Prof Kuntaman believed that the key is on antibiotics use because he thinks it is closely related to the effect of MRSA infection.

“The worse antibiotics policy, the higher antibiotic resistance,” he said.

Theoretically, the high bacterial infection is caused by unwise antibiotics use. Therefore, there is a research on antibiotics use conducted in the society.

“As long as they are used rationally, nothing will happen. But what if the antibiotics consumption isn’t controlled? It will trigger antibiotic resistance which makes people more vulnerable to bacterial infection,” he said.

Beside improving rationality of antibiotics use, Prof Kuntaman also suggested to improve obedience on hygiene, sanitation standards and washing hands habit in hospital.

According to his team’s research, Prof. Kuntaman has also finalized an eradication concept through medication therapy for MRSA infection. As MRSA bacteria spreads and hides in the nose, throat and skin, the concept of eradication also uses three concepts.

 What if we are already infected?

First, if the patient infected by MRSA, in certain period, the patient is required to take a bath with antiseptic liquid. Second, rub an ointment around the nose and for MRSA bacteria in the throat, antibiotics are given.

“As long as the body in fit condition, it is unlikely to be infected. On the other hand, for ill people, germs are easy to get in, so the diseases gather in the body and they are even difficult to treat,: he said.

If we are infected can it be cured? Prof Kuntaman believed that as long as the medication is given appropriately, MRSA infection can be cured. However, the right and effective method of medication needs microbiology expert and sophisticated microbiology laboratory.

Most of big hospitals in Indonesia have the sophisticated equipments and microbiology experts. But, how about the secondary hospitals?

Unfortunately, not all hospitals have the facilities. It makes the treatment given was only empirical. It is different from the hospitals with excellent human resources and laboratories. Therefore, MRSA therapy can be done with right and definitive medication therapy. (*)

Author: Sefya Hayu
Editor : Binti Q. Masruroh

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